The Case for Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Learning Strategies: Perspective of Marginalized Pakistani University Students


  • Iqra Ameer M.Phil Scholar,National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Kamran HoD/Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Loralai, Balochistan, Pakistan
  • Sajida Parveen Professor, Karachi Institute of Economic and Technology (KIET), Karachi, Pakistan



Cognitive Learning Strategies, Academic Achievement, Marginalized Pakistani University Perspective


The study explored the differences in preferred learning strategies according to students’ academic achievement, age, area, and gender among the university students that were enrolled in various departments of the University of Loralai, Balochistan. We used the survey descriptive quantitative method of research to carry on with this study. Descriptive (mean & SD) and inferential statistics (t-test & one-way ANOVA) were used to determine the differences in the learning strategies as per academic achievement, area, age, and gender of the said University students. The convenience type of sample (N = 396) consisted of students (M= 237, F= 159) from various departments of the University of Loralai, Balochistan. A reliable measure of 17 items spread on 3 factors was used to collect data. The construct validity of the measure, which was obtained by EFA & CFA, was considered from the prior research led in Spain and KSA. The current research revealed the results that all learning strategies were used but among these, the ESS (emotional social support) learning strategy was the most favored one while the MLS (micro learning strategy) was the least favored one. Males and females were found to have significant differences in using the overall learning strategies. Age groups were also found to have significant differences in using the KMMC strategy, ESS strategy, and overall LS. Based on these findings, limitations, and recommendations were enlisted for future studies.