The Determinants of Non-Performing Loans (NPLs); Evidence from the Banking Sector of Pakistan


  • Khawaja Hisham Ul Hassan Superior University Lahore, Pakistan
  • Salman Masood Sheikh Superior University Lahore, Pakistan
  • Saif Ur Rahman Superior University Lahore, Pakistan


Banking factors, efficiency, income diversification, corruption, political stability non-performing loans (NPLs), Pakistan


The main aim of the current study is to theorize an inclusive assessment of the factors of non-performing loans from the banking sector in the setting of Pakistan. In this connection, adequate criticism of contemporary literature is being provided in the context of relevant macroeconomic indicators which might aggravate the level of Non-Performing Loans (NPLs) in the conventional commercial banks of Pakistan as well as other regions. As per the study of literature, it has been found that corruption, political stability, accountability, investment profile, credit bank to private area and energy crisis affects the NPLs of conventional banks. In addition, factors like lending interest rate, unemployment, GDP and inflation do explain the variation in NPLs of the banking sector. Political stability, lack of capital capability, lack of efficiency, nominal emphasis on NPLs and lack of efficiency are the present issues being faced by the country. On the other hand, an increase in NPLs affects the internal factors including efficiency, profitability, bank size and capital. It has also been found that NPLs surge through inaccurate decisions by the organizations and political intervention in the banking sector. As per the outcomes of the studies, it has been observed that operational productivity and effectiveness have an adverse and significant relationship with NPLs. The lawmakers should accomplish a vigorous financial state of banks through manufacturing extra revenues. In this way banks will be in a better position to explore the credit worthiness of the creditors which will be ultimately helpful for better loan management. Once the key factors for an increase in NPLs are determined, the banks will establish stable and efficient policies for loan management. The purpose behind determining these internal as well as external factors is not merely to highlight their significance but to chalk out measures and directions to control the stability of the banking sector and the financial structure.