Impediments of Online Learning and Teaching During Covid Pandemic: A Case of University Students in Punjab, Pakistan


  • Samina Mushtaq Scholar, Department of Sociology & Criminology, University of Sargodha.
  • Ghulam Yasin Professor, Department of Sociology & Criminology, University of Sargodha
  • Tauqeer Ahmed Lak Lecturer, Department of Sociology & Criminology, University of Sargodha



Covid-19, Online learning, Online Teaching, Technical Incompetency, Internet Accessibility, Economic cost, Student Motivation, Institutional Help, Time management, Self-discipline, Technophobia, Pedagogy.


Due to COVID-19, online learning has become a major source of imparting knowledge around the world. But for developing countries, such as Pakistan, where only a small fraction have access to the Internet, this is quite challenging. The purpose of the study is, therefore, to examine vulnerabilities among university students across the province of Punjab, Pakistan, which emerged due to sudden changes in Pakistan's education system as a result of the coronavirus outbreak and the implementation of a nationwide lockdown. An online survey was conducted, and a sample of 379 students was selected from three different faculties at the University of Sargodha (Main Campus), which is one of the largest public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan. The collected data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as percentage, cross tabulation, and multiple linear regression. The findings revealed that load-shedding, high technology costs, poor connectivity, a lack of institutional support, and a lack of face-to-face interaction are significant impediments to students, traditional learning and teaching pedagogy cannot simply apply to online learning and teaching, and that new ways of thinking and doing things are required to develop a new pedagogy that takes into account all of the variables that have been mentioned in the study.