Exploring Factors Contributing to the Low Conviction Ratio of Rape Cases in Punjab, Pakistan


  • Hafiz Muhammad Azeem
  • Muhammad Sohail Thaheem International Islamic University, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Ramzan Kasuri




Low conviction ratio, sexual offences, rape, Pakistan


This research paper explores the various factors contributing to the low conviction ratio in sexual offences cases registered in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The practical challenges identified include the registration of cases based on false allegations, defective investigations, false witnesses and fabrication of evidence, reliance on hearsay evidence, presence of hostile witnesses, inconsistencies and shortcomings in the presentation of evidence, imperfect collection and reporting of forensic evidence, contradictions and improvements in witness depositions, delays in reporting crimes and recording statements, as well as the high standard of proving a case beyond a reasonable doubt, which may not be compatible with the societal context. To analyze these practical factors, a research questionnaire was distributed to fifteen prosecutors and fifteen lawyers. Additionally, secondary sources such as law books, articles, case laws, law reports, journals, and publications from non-governmental organizations were considered. The paper highlights that addressing these practical issues on a high priority basis, as recommended within the study, could lead to a decrease in the low conviction ratio. This research underscores the significance of implementing the provided recommendations to improve the overall conviction rate in sexual offences cases in Punjab, Pakistan.